The Annual Status of Education Report

The overall enrolment figures increased from 97.2% in 2018 to 98.4% in 2022, Despite school closures during the pandemic. The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2022, released by the NGO Pratham, records the impact of school closures in 2020 and 2021, and the return to school children in 2022.


Enrolment Figures


  • Overall enrolment figures for the 6 to 14 years age group increased from 97.2% in 2018 to 98.4% in 2022


  • The proportion of children in this (3-16years) age group who are currently enrolled also dropped to its lowest level ever to 1.6% from 2.8% in 2018


  • Government school has seen a sharp increase in children enrolled from 65.6% in 2018 to 72.9% in 2022, reversing another trend of a steady decrease in student enrolments seen since 2006


Literacy Levels


  • Children’s basic literacy levels have taken a big hit, with their reading ability as compared to numeracy skills worsening much more sharply and dropping to pre-2012 levels


  • The percentage of children in Class 3 in government or private schools who were able to read at the level of Class 2 dropped from 27.3% in 2018 to 20.5% in 2022


  • This decline is visible in every state and for children in both government and private schools


  • The percentage of children enrolled in Class 5 in government or private schools who can at least read a Class 2 level text fell from 50.5% in 2018 to 42.8% in 2022


  • The drops in essential reading ability are smaller for Class 8 students


  • The ASER reading test assesses whether a child can read letters, words, or a simple paragraph at the Class 1 level of difficulty, or a story at the Class 2 level of difficulty


Arithmetic Skills


  • The percentage of Class 3 students who were able to do at least subtract dropped from 28.2% in 2018 to 25.9% in 2022


  • The proportion of children in Class 5 across India who can carry out division has also fallen slightly from 27.9% in 2018 to 25.6% in 2022


  • The performance of Class 8 students in basic arithmetic is more varied


  • Nationally, the proportion of children who can do division has increased slightly, from 44.1% in 2018 to 44.7% in 2022




The ASER 2022 report highlights the widening learning gaps in foundational skills in reading and arithmetic that have emerged as a result of the pandemic and school closures. The report shows that despite an increase in enrolment figures and a decrease in the proportion of children not currently enrolled, there has been a significant decline in basic literacy and arithmetic skills, reversing several years of improvement. The report emphasizes the need for urgent interventions to address these learning gaps and support children’s continued learning and development.



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